Selasa, 19 Oktober 2010


A modem (modulator-demodulator) is a device that modulates an analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data. Modems can be used over any means of transmitting analog signals, from driven diodes to radio.

The most familiar example is a voice-band modem that turns the digital data of a personal computer into modulated electrical signals in the voice-frequency range of a telephone channel. These signals can be transmitted over telephone lines and demodulated by another modem at the receiver side to recover the digital data.

Modems are generally classified by the amount of data they can send in a given time unit, normally measured in bits per second (bit/s, or bps). They can also be classified by the symbol rate measured in baud, the number of times the modem changes its signal state per second. For example, the ITU V.21 standard used audio frequency-shift keying, aka tones, to carry 300 bit/s using 300 baud, whereas the original ITU V.22 standard allowed 1,200 bit/s with 600 baud using phase-shift keying.

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Senin, 18 Oktober 2010

A network interface card (NIC) is a hardware device that handles an interface to a computer network and allows a network-capable device to access that network. The NIC has a ROM chip that contains a unique number, the media access control (MAC) Address burned into it. The MAC address identifies the device uniquely on the LAN. The NIC exists on the 'Data Link Layer' (Layer 2) of the OSI model.

A network interface card, network adapter, network interface controller (NIC), or LAN adapter is a computer hardware component designed to allow computers to communicate over a computer network. It is both an OSI layer 1 (physical layer) and layer 2 (data link layer) device, as it provides physical access to a networking medium and provides a low-level addressing system through the use of MAC addresses. It allows users to connect to each other either by using cables or wirelessly.

Although other network technologies exist (e.g. Token Ring), Ethernet has achieved near-ubiquity since the mid-1990s. Every Ethernet network card has a unique 48-bit serial number called a MAC address, which is stored in ROM carried on the card. Every computer on an Ethernet network must have a card with a unique MAC address. Normally it is safe to assume that no two network cards will share the same address, because card vendors purchase blocks of addresses from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and assign a unique address to each card at the time of manufacture.

Madge 4/16Mbps TokenRing ISA NIC

Ethernet 10Base-5/2 ISA NIC

Whereas network cards used to be expansion cards that plug into a computer bus, the low cost and ubiquity of the Ethernet standard means that most newer computers have a network interface built into the motherboard. These either have Ethernet capabilities integrated into the motherboard chipset or implemented via a low cost dedicated Ethernet chip, connected through the PCI (or the newer PCI express) bus. A separate network card is not required unless multiple interfaces are needed or some other type of network is used. Newer motherboards may even have dual network (Ethernet) interfaces built-in.

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Wireless Access Point


In computer networking, a wireless access point (WAP) is a device that allows wired communication devices to connect to a wireless network using Wi-Fi, Bluetooth or related standards. The WAP usually connects to a router, and can relay data between the wireless devices (such as computers or printers) and wired devices on the network.

Industrial grade WAPs are rugged, with a metal cover and a DIN rail mount. During operations they can tolerate a wider temperature range, high humidity and exposure to water, dust, and oil. Wireless security includes: WPA-PSK, WPA2, IEEE 802.1x/RADIUS, WDS, WEP, TKIP, and CCMP (AES) encryption. Unlike home consumer models, industrial wireless access points can also be used as a bridge, router, or a client.

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Gateway ( Telecommunications )

In telecommunications, the term gateway has the following meaning:
In a communications network, a network node equipped for interfacing with another network that uses different protocols.
A gateway may contain devices such as protocol translators, impedance matching devices, rate converters, fault isolators, or signal translators as necessary to provide system interoperability. It also requires the establishment of mutually acceptable administrative procedures between both networks.
A protocol translation/mapping gateway interconnects networks with different network protocol technologies by performing the required protocol conversions.
Loosely, a computer configured to perform the tasks of a gateway. For a specific case, see default gateway.

Routers exemplify special cases of gateways.

Gateways, also called protocol converters, can operate at any layer of the OSI model. The job of a gateway is much more complex than that of a router or switch. Typically, a gateway must convert one protocol stack into another.

A gateway is a network point that acts as an entrance to another network. On the Internet, a node or stopping point can be either a gateway node or a host (end-point) node. Both the computers of Internet users and the computers that serve pages to users are host nodes, while the nodes that connect the networks in between are gateways. For example, the computers that control traffic between company networks or the computers used by internet service providers (ISPs) to connect users to the internet are gateway nodes.

In the network for an enterprise, a computer server acting as a gateway node is often also acting as a proxy server and a firewall server. A gateway is often associated with both a router, which knows where to direct a given packet of data that arrives at the gateway, and a switch, which furnishes the actual path in and out of the gateway for a given packet.

On an IP network, clients should automatically send IP packets with a destination outside a given subnet mask to a network gateway. A subnet mask defines the IP range of a network. For example, if a network has a base IP address of and has a subnet mask of, then any data going to an IP address outside of 192.168.0.X will be sent to that network's gateway. While forwarding an IP packet to another network, the gateway might or might not perform Network Address Translation.

A gateway is an essential feature of most routers, although other devices (such as any PC or server) can function as a gateway.

Most computer operating systems use the terms described above. A computer running Microsoft Windows however describes this standard networking feature as Internet Connection Sharing; which will act as a gateway, offering a connection between the Internet and an internal network. Such a system might also act as a DHCP server. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a protocol used by networked devices (clients) to obtain various parameters necessary for the clients to operate in an Internet Protocol (IP) network. By using this protocol, system administration workload greatly decreases, and devices can be added to the network with minimal or no manual configurations.


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Ethernet Hub

An Ethernet hub, active hub, network hub, repeater hub or hub is a device for connecting multiple twisted pair or fiber optic Ethernet devices together and making them act as a single network segment. Hubs work at the physical layer (layer 1) of the OSI model. The device is a form of multiport repeater. Repeater hubs also participate in collision detection, forwarding a jam signal to all ports if it detects a collision.

Hubs also often come with a BNC and/or Attachment Unit Interface (AUI) connector to allow connection to legacy 10BASE2 or 10BASE5 network segments. The availability of low-priced network switches has largely rendered hubs obsolete but they are still seen in older installations and more specialized applications.

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Typical SOHO network switch.

Back view of Atlantis network switch with Ethernet ports.

A network switch or switching hub is a computer networking device that connects network segments.

The term commonly refers to a network bridge that processes and routes data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. Switches that additionally process data at the network layer (layer 3 and above) are often referred to as Layer 3 switches or multilayer switches.

The term network switch does not generally encompass unintelligent or passive network devices such as hubs and repeaters.

The first Ethernet switch was introduced by Kalpana in 1990.

The network switch, packet switch (or just switch) plays an integral part in most Ethernet local area networks or LANs. Mid-to-large sized LANs contain a number of linked managed switches. Small office/home office (SOHO) applications typically use a single switch, or an all-purpose converged device such as a gateway to access small office/home broadband services such as DSL or cable internet. In most of these cases, the end-user device contains a router and components that interface to the particular physical broadband technology, as in Linksys 8-port and 48-port devices. User devices may also include a telephone interface for VoIP.

A standard 10/100 Ethernet switch operates at the data-link layer of the OSI model to create a different collision domain for each switch port. If you have 4 computers (e.g., A, B, C, and D) on 4 switch ports, then A and B can transfer data back and forth, while C and D also do so simultaneously, and the two "conversations" will not interfere with one another. In the case of a "hub," they would all share the bandwidth and run in Half duplex, resulting in collisions, which would then necessitate retransmissions. Using a switch is called microsegmentation. This allows you to have dedicated bandwidth on point-to-point connections with every computer and to therefore run in Full duplex with no collisions.

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A router is an electronic device that interconnects two or more computer networks, and selectively interchanges packets of data between them. Each data packet contains address information that a router can use to determine if the source and destination are on the same network, or if the data packet must be transferred from one network to another. When multiple routers are used in a large collection of interconnected networks, the routers exchange information about target system addresses, so that each router can build up a table showing the preferred paths between any two systems on the interconnected networks.

A router is a networking device whose software and hardware are customized to the tasks of routing and forwarding information. A router has two or more network interfaces, which may be to different physical types of network (such as copper cables, fiber, or wireless) or different network standards. Each network interface is a specialized device that converts electric signals from one form to another.

Routers connect two or more logical subnets, each having a different network address. The subnets in the router do not necessarily map one-to-one to the physical interfaces of the router.[1] The term "layer 3 switching" is often used interchangeably with the term "routing". The term switching is generally used to refer to data forwarding between two network devices with the same network address. This is also called layer 2 switching or LAN switching.

Conceptually, a router operates in two operational planes (or sub-systems):[2]
Control plane: where a router builds a table (called routing table) as how a packet should be forwarded through which interface, by using either statically configured statements (called static routes) or by exchanging information with other routers in the network through a dynamical routing protocol;
Forwarding plane: where the router actually forwards traffic (called packets in IP) from ingress (incoming) interfaces to an egress (outgoing) interface that is appropriate for the destination address that the packet carries with it, by following rules derived from the routing table that has been built in the control plane.

 source of wikipedia